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Evidence Base and Citations


Works Cited

Agnoli, A., Xing, G., Tancredi, D. J., Magnan, E., Jerant, A., & Fenton, J. J. (2021). Association of dose tapering with overdose or mental health crisis among patients prescribed long-term opioids. JAMA, 326(5), 411-419.

Ball, J., & Ross, A. (1991). Follow-up study of 105 patients who left treatment. In The Effectiveness of Methadone Maintenance Treatment: Patients, Programs, Services, and Outcome (pp. 176-187). Springer New York, NY.

Beletsky, L., Macalino, G., & Burris, S. (2005). Attitudes of police officers towards syringe access, occupational needle-sticks, and drug use: a qualitative study of one city police department in the United States. International Journal of Drug Policy, 16(4), 267-274.

Binswanger, I., Stern, M., Deyo, R., Heagerty, P., Cheadle, A., Elmore, J., & Koepsell, T. (2007). Release from prison—a high risk of death for former inmates. New England Journal of Medicine, 356(2), 157-165. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMsa064115

Binswanger, I. A., Blatchford, P. J., Mueller, S. R., & Stern, M. F. (2013). Mortality after prison release: opioid overdose and other causes of death, risk factors, and time trends from 1999 to 2009. Annals of Internal Medicine, 159(9), 592-600. 

Bredenberg, E., Tietbohl, C., Dafoe, A., Thurman, L., & Calcaterra, S. (2023). Identifying factors that contribute to burnout and resilience among hospital-based addiction medicine providers: A qualitative study. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 144, 108924. 

Caulkins, J. P., Gould, A., Pardo, B., Reuter, P., & Stein, B. D. (2021). Opioids and the criminal justice system: new challenges posed by the modern opioid epidemic. Annual Review of Criminology, 4, 353-375.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2023, January 11). Summary of Information on The Safety and Effectiveness of Syringe Services Programs (SSPs). CDC.

Chen, Q., Sterner, G., Segel, J., & Feng, Z. (2022). Trends in opioid-related crime incidents and comparison with opioid overdose outcomes in the United States. International Journal of Drug Policy, 101, 103555.

Chikwem, C. (2017). The relationship of job stress to job performance in police officers. [Doctoral Dissertation]. Walden University College of Social and Behavioral Sciences.

Christopher, P., Anderson, B., & Stein, M. (2018). Civil commitment experiences among opioid users. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 193, 137-141.

Cicero, T., Elliz, M., & Chilcoat, H. (2018). Understanding the use of diverted buprenorphine. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 193, 117-123.


Cidambi, I. (2017, July 17). Drug and Alcohol Abuse in the Legal Profession. Psychology Today.

Coffin, P., Behar, E., Rowe, C., Santos, G.-M., Coffa, D., Bald, M., & Vittinghoff, E. (2016). Nonrandomized intervention study of naloxone coprescription for primary care patients receiving long-term opioid therapy for pain. Annals of Internal Medicine, 165(4), 245-252.

Commonwealth of Massachusetts. (2008, November 19). 7840 Sale of Drug Paraphernalia.

Commonwealth of Massachusetts. (2019, June 21). Mass. General Laws c.94C § 34A.

Dean, W., Talbot, S., & Dean, A. (2019). Reframing clinician distress: moral injury not burnout. Federal Practitioner, 36(9), 400.

Dwyer, K., Walley, A., Langlois, B., Mitchell, P., Nelson, K., Cromwell, J., & Bernstein, E. (2015). Opioid education and nasal naloxone rescue kits in the emergency department. Western Journal of Emergency Medicine, 16(3), 381. 10.5811/westjem.2015.2.24909

Eddie, D., & Kelly, J. (2021, May 3). People recover from addiction. They also go on to do good things. STAT News.


Evans, E. A., Zhu, Y., Yoo, C., Huang, D., & Hser, Y. I. (2019). Criminal justice outcomes over 5 years after randomization to buprenorphine‐naloxone or methadone treatment for opioid use disorder. Addiction, 114(8), 1396-1404.

Evans, E., Wilson, D., & Friedmann, P. (2022). Recidivism and mortality after in-jail buprenorphine treatment for opioid use disorder. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 231.


Fearn, N. E., Vaughn, M. G., Nelson, E. J., Salas-Wright, C. P., DeLisi, M., & Qian, Z. (2016). Trends and correlates of substance use disorders among probationers and parolees in the United States 2002–2014. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 167, 128-139.

Gilmartin, K. M. (2002). Emotional Survival for Law Enforcement: A Guide for Officers and Their Families. E-S Press.

Green, T., Clarke, J., Brinkley-Rubinstein, L., Marshall, B., Alexander-Scott, N., Boss, R., & Rich, J. (2018). Postincarceration fatal overdoses after implementing medications for addiction treatment in a statewide correctional system. JAMA Psychiatry, 75(4), 405-407. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2017.4614

Help For Our Heroes. (2021, July 15). The Blue Line: Substance Abuse Among Police Officers. Help For Our Heroes Treatment Program.


Huebner, B. (2006). Drug Abuse, Treatment, and Probationer Recidivism. Office of Justice Programs. 

Indiana State Department of Health. (2019, May 16). Naloxone Myths Debunked. 

International Centre for the Prevention of Crime. (2015, June 1). Prevention of Drug-Related Crime Report. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime.

Jain, A., Christopher, P., & Appelbaum, P. (2018). Civil commitment for opioid and other substance use disorders: does it work? Psychiatric Services, 69(4), 374-376.

Koenig, H. G., & Al Zaben, F. (2021). Moral injury: An increasingly recognized and widespread syndrome. Journal of Religion and Health, 60, 2989-3011.

Kop, N., Euwema, M., & Schaufeli, W. (1999). Burnout, job stress and violent behaviour among Dutch police officers. Work & Stress, 13(4), 326-340.

Krawczyk, N., Picher, C. E., Feder, K. A., & Saloner, B. (2017). Only one in twenty justice-referred adults in specialty treatment for opioid use receive methadone or buprenorphine. Health Affairs, 36(12), 2046-2053.

Krill, P. R., Johnson, R., & Albert, L. (2016). The prevalence of substance use and other mental health concerns among American attorneys. Journal of Addiction Medicine, 10(1), 46.

Lamoureux, I., Schutt, P., & Rasmussen, K. (2017). Petitioning for Involuntary Commitment for Chemical Dependency by Medical Services. The Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, 45(3), 332-338.

LawAtlas. (2019, August 1). Syringe Service Program Laws. The Policy Surveillance Program.

Lorentz, J., Hill, L., & Samimi, B. (2000). Occupational needlestick injuries in a metropolitan police force. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 18(2), 146-150.

MacDonald, M., Law, M., Kaldor, J., Hales, J., & Dore, G. J. (2003). Effectiveness of needle and syringe programmes for preventing HIV transmission. International Journal of Drug Policy, 14(5-6), 353-357.

Manzoni, P., & Eisner, M. (2006). Violence between the police and the public: Influences of work-related stress, job satisfaction, burnout, and situational factors. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 33(5), 613-645.

Massachusetts Department of Public Health. (2017). An Assessment of Fatal and Nonfatal Opioid Overdoses in Massachusetts (2011 – 2015). In Section III.e Persons Released from Incarceration in Prisons and Jails (p. 50). Massachusetts Department of Public Health.

Massachusetts Department of Public Health. (2017, August). Data Brief: An Assessment of Opioid-Related Overdoses in Massachusetts 2011-2015.

Mayo Clinic. (2021, June 5). Job burnout: How to spot it and take action. Mayo Clinic.

Moss, M., Warrick, B., Nelson, L., McKay, C., Dubé, P.-A., Gosselin, S., Palmer, R., & Stolbach, A. (2018). ACMT and AACT position statement: preventing occupational fentanyl and fentanyl analog exposure to emergency responders. Clinical Toxicology, 56(4), 297-300. 10.1007/s13181-017-0628-2

National Harm Reduction Coalition. (2020, July 7). Harm Reduction Principles. National Harm Reduction Coalition.

The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). (2022, August 30). Protecting Law Enforcement Officers from Sharps Injuries. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

National Institute on Drug Abuse. (2020, June 1). Criminal Justice DrugFacts. National Institute on Drug Abuse.

National Institute on Drug Abuse. (2020, July 10). Drug Misuse and Addiction. National Institute on Drug Abuse. 

Oliva, E. M., Bowe, T., Manhapra, A., Kertesz, S., Hah, J. M., Henderson, P., ... & Trafton, J. A. (2020). Associations between stopping prescriptions for opioids, length of opioid treatment, and overdose or suicide deaths in US veterans: observational evaluation. BMJ, 368. 

Organ, J. M., Jaffe, D. B., & Bender, K. M. (2016). Suffering in silence: The survey of law student well-being and the reluctance of law students to seek help for substance use and mental health concerns. Journal of Legal Education, 66(1), 116-156. 

Oser, C. B., Biebel, E. P., Pullen, E., & Harp, K. L. (2013). Causes, consequences, and prevention of burnout among substance abuse treatment counselors: A rural versus urban comparison. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 45(1), 17-27. 

Park, I., Choo, T., & Na, C. (2022). Burnout in the DA's office: Correlates and coping strategies among male and female prosecutors. International Journal of Law, Crime and Justice, 69, 100533.

Reichert, J., & Gleicher, L. (2019, June 17). Probation Clients’ Barriers to Access and Use of Opioid Use Disorder Medications. Illinois Criminal Justice Information Authority.

Retreat Behavioral Health. (2023, May 1). Drug Use Among Police Officers, Alcoholism Among Police Officers. Retreat Behavioral Health.

Samuels, E. (2014). Emergency department naloxone distribution: a Rhode Island department of health, recovery community, and emergency department partnership to reduce opioid overdose deaths. Rhode Island Medical Journal, 97(10), 38.

Saunders, J., Kotzias, V., & Ramchand, R. (2019). Contemporary police stress: The impact of the evolving socio-political context. Criminology, Criminal Justice, Law & Society, 20(1).

Schenk, S., Eisenbarth, H., & Dixon, L. (2020). Treating opioid use disorders in the criminal justice system with pharmacotherapy. Forensic Science International: Mind and Law, 1, 100009. 

Sirkin, J., Sawyer, J., Augenbraun, S., Rasky, R., & Freij, M. (2023, February 1). Lawyer Well-Being in Massachusetts. NORC at the University of Chicago.

Smith, B. (2014, May 13). Resilience seminar offered to Families. U.S. Army.

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (2014, March 6). The NSDUH Report: Trends in Substance Use Disorders among Males Aged 18 to 49 on Probation or Parole. SAMHSA.

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (2017, April 17). Peers Supporting Recovery from Substance Use Disorders. SAMHSA.

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (2020, May 8). Guidance for Law Enforcement and First Responders Administering Naloxone. SAMHSA.


Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (2022, December 6). Results from the 2021 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Graphics from the Key Findings Report. SAMHSA. 

Szalavitz, M. (2021, September 12). Opioids and Cigarettes Are Both Harmful, but Opioids Have Valid Medical Uses. Scientific American.

Troilo, M. (2018, December 7). We know how to prevent opioid overdose deaths for people leaving prison. So why are prisons doing nothing? Prison Policy Initiative.

Tsai, J., & Gu, X. (2019). Utilization of addiction treatment among US adults with history of incarceration and substance use disorders. Addiction Science & Clinical Practice, 14, 1-9.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2023, January 4). SAMHSA Announces National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) Results Detailing Mental Illness and Substance Use Levels in 2021.

U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs. (2016, June 28). Opioid Overdose Rescue with Naloxone Nasal Spray 4mg: Patient Guide. U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs.

Violanti, J. (2018, May). PTSD among Police Officers: Impact on Critical Decision Making. Community Policing Dispatch, 11(5).

Walley, A., Xuan, Z., Hackman, H., Quinn, E., Doe-Simkins, M., Sorensen-Alawad, A., Ruiz, S., & Ozonoff, A. (2013). Opioid overdose rates and implementation of overdose education and nasal naloxone distribution in Massachusetts: interrupted time series analysis. British Medical Journal, 346.

Watson, P., Norman, S. B., Maguen, S., & Hamblen, J. (2022, October 26). Moral Injury in Health Care Workers. National Center for PTSD.

Williams, A., Mauro, C., Feng, T., Wilson, A., Cruz, A., Olfson, M., Crystal, S., Samples, H., & Chiodo, L. (2022). Non–prescribed buprenorphine preceding treatment intake and clinical outcomes for opioid use disorder. Journal of Substance Abuse & Addiction Treatment, 139.

Xu, Z. (2023). Research Related to Self-Efficacy in Substance Use Disorders. Journal of Education, Humanities and Social Sciences, 8, 1567-1571.

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